……objective science for conservation…….

The Pacific WildLife Foundation is a non-profit coastal and marine research and education society  that inspires an appreciation for objective scientific research and conservation of the ocean. We conduct original research, develop novel education programs, and inspire an appreciation for conservation of the ocean. 

 The Pacific
 Marine Mammals
 Get Involved

If you would like to make a donation to The Pacific WildLife Foundation you can use our secure online site or your donation can be mailed to our office.

Click Here for Donation Info

Steller Sea Lion Eumetopias jubatus

Steller sea lion is also known as the northern sea lion. It forms raucous groups at haul outs on the shore. Males are larger than females. The number of Steller sea lions declined between the late 1970s and early 1990s in the western Gulf of Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, and in Russia, and increased in southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon through the 1980s and 1990s (Merrick et al 1987, Loughlin 1998, Trites and Larkin 1996). The causes are unknown (DeMaster and Atkinson 2002, Trites and Donnelly 2003). In 2002, the eastern population was estimated to hold about 45,000 sea lions (Pitcher et al. 2003). Two stocks of Steller sea lions are recognized from genetic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA. An eastern population from California to southeast Alaska and a western population from the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands to Russia (Bickham et al. 1996).



Bickham, J. W., J. C. Patton, and T. R. Loughlin. 1996. High variability for control-region sequences in a marine mammal: implications for conservation and biogeography of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 77:95-108.


Bigg, M. A. 1984. Sighting and kill data for the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in British Columbia, 1892-1982, with some records from Washington and southeastern Alaska. Nanaimo, BC. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 460, 191 pp.


Bigg, M. A. 1985. Status of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in British Columbia. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 77:1-20.


Bigg, M. A., G. M. Ellis, P. Cottrell, and L. Milette. 1990. Predation by harbour seals and sea lions on adult salmon in Comox Harbour and Cowichan Bay, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1769:1-31.


Calkins, D.G., D.C. McAllister, K.W. Pitcher and G. W. Pendleton. 1999. Steller sea lion status and trend in southeast Alaska: 1979-1997. Marine Mammal Science 15: 462-477.


Fritz, L.W. and C. Stinchcom. 2005. Aerial, ship and land based surveys of Steller’s sea lions in the western stock in Alaska, June and July 2003 and 2004.NOAA Technical Report NMFS-AFSC 153, Washington, DC.


Harington, C. R., R.L.M. Ross, R.W. Mathewes, K.M. Stewart and O. Beattie. 2004. A late Pleistocene Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Courtenay, British Columbia: its death, associated biota, and paleoenvironment. Can. J. Earth Sci.41: 1285-1297.


Kenyon, K. W. and D. W. Rice. 1961. Abundance and distribution of the Steller sea lion. Journal of Mammalogy 42:223-234.


Loughlin, T. R. 1998. The Steller sea lion: a declining species. Biosphere Conservation 1: 91-98.


Merrick, R. L., T. R. Loughlin, and D. G. Calkins. 1987. Decline in abundance of the northern sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in Alaska, 1956-1986. Fisheries Bulletin 85:351-365.


Pitcher, K. W., P. F. Olesiuk, R. F. Brown, M. Lowry, J. Sease, W. Perryman, C. Stinchcomb and L. Lowry. 2003. Status and trend of the eastern population of Steller sea lions. Marine Sciences in the Northeast Pacific Symposium, 13-17 January, 2003, Anchorage, Alaska.


Reeves, R. R. B. S. Stewart, P. J. Clapham and J. A. Powell. 2002. Guide to marine mammals of the world. National Audubon Society, New York.


Trites, A. W. and C. P. Donnelly 2003. The decline of Steller sea lions in Alaska: a

review of the nutritional stress hypothesis. Mammal Review 33: 3-28.


Trites, A. W. and P. A. Larkin 1989. The decline and fall of the Pribilof fur seal

(Callorhinus ursinus): a simulation study. Canadian Jounral of Fisheries and Aquaric Sciences 46: 1437-1445.


Wilson, D. and S. Ruff. 1999. Smithsonian book of North American mammals. UBC Press, Vancouver.


Womble, J. N., M. F. Willson, M. F. Sigler, B. P. Kelly, G. R. VanBlaricom. 2005. Distribution of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatusin relation to spring-spawning fish in SE Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294: 271–282



  Terms of Use  Privacy Policy